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 DNA Testing for Relationship > Technology Overview

 Technology Overview

 Our DNA testing systems enable us to evaluate most parentage cases

  Autosomal Short Tandem Repeats (Au-STR) analysis

Human DNA Identification and Relationship Testing
    Extended System, analyzing 21 to 33 STR loci
    For DNA paternity test, our standard system includes Applied Biosystems (ABI) IdentifilerPlus analyzing 15 genetic loci plus amelogenin

  Forensic DNA Samples and Aged DNA Samples

  In-house developed Mini-STR system for DNA profiling of degraded or fragmented DNA samples

  Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequencing

For tracing maternal ancestry in Grandparentage DNA Test and DNA Maternity Test
Test whether sharing the same mother with siblings- Siblings DNA Test
For hair or bone samples that have limited amount of usable genomic DNA

  Sex Chromosomal STR analysis (X and Y chromosomes STR)

X-Chromosome STR tracing the maternal lineage whether share the same female ancestor or paternal lineage in deficiency case
Y-Chromosome STR tracing the paternal lineage whether share the same male ancestor
Used in forensic identification to confirm the gender of suspect

  Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

 DNA Test Samples to Report

All cells/tissues or objects containing cellular DNA are suitable as samples for DNA testing. Examples that we have handled are listed in each section. Same body, different cellular sources, same DNA, identical results!

All biological samples are carefully extracted for DNA by our laboratory staff using commercial and/or GenePro’s lab-developed methods that are customized for handling challenging samples. Extracted DNA will then be: quantified, amplified (STR by PCR) and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis; and/or nucleotide sequencing if needed, followed by interpretation of the results.


 DNA Test Protocols

  GenePro’s relationship DNA testing follows the recommendations of international guidelines:
  International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) [Morling et al 2002, Forensic Sci. Intl. 129:148-157; Gjertson et al 2007, Forensic Sci. Intl.(Genetics)]; .
American Association of Blood Banks Standards (AABB) [Guideline for Relationship Testing Laboratories 12th Ed., 2015].
Documented protocols and interpretations in the literature are also used.

 Reporting and Interpretation

Statement of biological relationship is based on Likelihood Ratio (LR, e.g. Paternity/Kinship Index) that compares contrasting hypotheses mutually exclusive (i.e. Probability of a true relationship / Probability of a false relationship).

Calculation is based on a specific population database (𝜃 = 0.01) and the probability (W) is calculated using a prior probability of 50%.